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[Geog] 歷屆常見問題 (二)

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歷屆常見問題 (二)

Climate and Global Warming

1) 點解deforestation 會加深Global warming的影響?
咁係因為碳循環受阻
- during the process of deforestation, it may involve the burning of trees, which produce large amount of CO2 in the atmosphere
- besides, deforestation reduces the amount of CO2 to be absorbed by plants during photosynthesis,
- effectiveness of the natural carbon cycle is disrupted.

2) Subtropical high 比 Equatorial low 受的日射更高?
- 地軸是傾斜的
- cloud cover in subtropical region < that along the equatorial regions
- little moderation formed with high evaporation and little cloud cover (rainfall/precipitation)

3) How does global warming decrease food production? Discuss.

一般同學係理解global warming既effect,只會想到temperate areas 既cropping period延長,因此適合更長的耕作,甚至做到triple-cropping.
這個想法並無不妥。 但問題是GW同樣可以lower food supply/production,因為

- coastal farming activities are disrupted as a result of rising sea level
- increasing pests and diseases, e.g. locust (蝗蟲)
- loss of fertile arable land due to flooding
- intensify salinisation => crops cannot grow well (too salty/alkaline)



Agriculture and Famine
1) 究竟Sahel 地區的famine是human factor還是自然因素影響較大?

對於這類open-ended的問題,我想大家可以這樣答 (如果你諗到更加多既human factors contributing to the famine problem),咁你可以話係前者影響較大。

Natural factor:
- unreliable rainfall and low annual rainfall (200-450 mm)
- low soil fertility which discourage intensive farming activities
- failure in crop and livestock production

Human factor:
- rapid population growth due to advancement in medicine
- political instability
- demand for food>existing food supply
- low level of farming technology (use of primary and traditional farming methods)
- low food productivity
- lack of capital and government support to import food
- nearly no long-term irrigation projects/agricultural programmes are carried out as a result of frequent changes of government
- over-extraction of under ground water
- environmental degradation

2) Biotechnology has the following disadvantages:
註: 使用biotech不會令biodiversity下跌。

Biotech 的drawbacks:
i) since a lot of these technologies are patented (專利化),
ii) using them in farming is very costly
iii) unknown effect to the ecosystem, potential threat to the habitat
iv) unknown effect to human beings


For GM-food,
you can simply refer to 2007 CE Geography Paper I for answers =)

3) 點樣答same physical constraints 但情況不一?
- different cultural inputs 如 technology, capital, government support

所以Sahel 使用extensive farming (transhumance + nomadic herding 適應氣候問題)
詳參 2007 PP1 Q.6




City and Sustainable development


1) Urban encroachment 等於 urban sprawl?
Urban Encroachment: With higher demands of land, the population and economic activities have spread to the suburbs and rural area. Rural land is turned into urban land uses, known as urban encroachment.

Urban Sprawl: Urban sprawl refers to the unplanned expansion of urban land use into surrounding rural area.

兩者focus並不同,後者帶-ve meaning.



2) Urban decay有咩特徵?

1. Building: old/ worn out/ illegal structure/ lack of alarming system
2. Building pattern: closely spaced
3. Narrow pavements and streets
4. Lack of public amenties
5. Poor town planning/ unauthorized land use/ poor townscape (land uses incompatible to surrounding)
6. Worn-out building structure, lack of fire installments, illegal structure


3) 甚麼是land resumption? (收地)
Land resumption is an action taken by developers or govt to get back the "land" rights of a particular place.

For example: there is a new town development programme, however, there is an old settlement. Land resumption is done to get back the rights to do the related construction

Another example: there is a project in mk "football street". land resumption is done to get the ownership from "tong lau".

Problems related to land resumption:

1. large sum of compensation
2. argument of fairness: whether the compensation is fair, there is not judgement --> create social problem, cut social ties/ collective memory
3. delay of the project
4. multiple ownership: difficult to get whole rights (as there are many "previous" owners)!


4) Urban Heat Island Effect (熱島效應)
This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 1-6˚C hotter than nearby rural areas. The possible reasons for that include:

-        There are fewer trees, shrubs, and other plants to shade buildings, intercept solar radiation, and cool the air by “evapotranspiration”.
-        Buildings and pavement made of dark materials absorb the sun's rays instead of reflecting them away, causing the temperature of the surfaces and the air around them to rise.

Effects to city
A.        Bad air quality
Urban heat islands are not only uncomfortably hot, they are also smoggier.
Smog is created by photochemical (光化學) reactions of pollutants in the air. These reactions are more likely to occur and intensify at higher temperatures. The incidence of smog generally increases with increasing temperature.

B.        Higher energy consumption
Higher ambient temperatures in heat islands also increase air conditioning energy use. As power plants burn more fossil fuels, they increase both pollution levels and energy costs.

5) Revitalisation VS Rrehabilitation
Revitalisation: 係指以美化舊樓,改善外觀為重點。
Rehabilitation: 係指以改裝樓宇外內部設施 (如加入防火設備)、或改善樓宇或區域的衛生、樓宇密度的翻新工程。

[ 本帖最後由 Ronald_Chui 於 2010-3-15 11:36 PM 編輯 ]
   
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Why 使用biotech不會令biodiversity下跌?

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有冇中文- -我唔係英文讀

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我認為使用biotech會令biodiversity下跌
有d經改造ge植物可能會經花粉傳播,製造超級野草,剝奪其他生物生存空間,影響自然生態 biodiversity decrease
基因改造動物如果同野生動物交配,有可能令全族滅絕

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