[問題] HISTORY 求評 history對我很關鍵! 唔該!


HISTORY 求評 history對我很關鍵! 唔該!

Part 1BQ
1 a:
There isreluctance and reservation towards the wars. The support to was not all out andtotal, e.g. “we don’t want to fight” in Britain, France wanted “peacefularbitration”

There isdifferent view to the wars. Britain thought they had ability to win, e.g. “man…ship…”.France though war was not necessary, and suggested other methods to solve theproblem.

There isantagonism to the enemy of the war (antagonized each other). Both declaredenemy, pointing to the other country, e.g. “Russian shall…”, “Britain…”

The roleof nationalism in the public views. Britain: “Britain true…”. Both pointed to anation as enemy.

The warwould not end easily. It would be endless. Swirl represents endlessness. And evenboth sides have a weapon, they cannot attack accurately and easily in theswirl, meaning the war would last long.

The warwas complicated. Swirl means complication. And there are many parties likely toenter the swirl, to make it more complicated.

Therewas a possibility that other powers might join the situation, judging by theirfacial expression and body language that they wanted to enter. The swirl waspulling them in. The seemed to be doing very hard to pull them back.


Boththough France was warlike. “warlike…”, “revenge…”

Boththought France had the ability to win. “progress…”, another excerpt: reproachthe “incapability and cowardice” of German government, meaning people thought Francewas strong compared to Germany.

Boththough it was worthwhile to risk war.

Psychologicalshock and fear: seeing “dead body”

Physicalharm: “dysentery, wept, poor sanitary, flies…”

Effect ofwar propaganda: made them numb of war, “shot and shot” meaning conducting warwith no more feeling. “saying England to end argument” meaning they though thecountry was there ultimate concern.

Exposedto risk: “run through fire…”

Death: “Darky”

Doubtstowards war: feel “absurd” that one had to die for war


Increaseawareness of difficulties faced by returning soldiers: “contribution deservebetter due to their sacrifice”

Commemoratethe “death” for their “past effort….”

Encouragethe cherishing of peace: “the peace is precious and won by sacrificing manylives”

Notvalid. Changed.

Source: Changefrom “inevitable and effective” to “not inevitable and ineffective”
inevitable(A Britain), effective (C)
thereare other alternative (A France) -> not inevitable
noteffective (B)
doubts aboutsacrfising life (D: absurd)

Social Darwinismin early times said war was necessary and inevitable and effective
e.g.Germany used belligerent method to solve disputes in Kaiser William II times
Butlater, there were conferences to solved crises, post-war conferences andpost-crises conferences, e.g. Aaland and Corfu in 1920s

Part 2
Liberalism:e.g. parliament, press freedom, political discussions in countries he rule,e.g. burschenschaft and Carbonari born under Napoleonic rule

Nationalism:against invading France, harsh rule of Napoleon,
e.g.continental system damaged economy, Russia invasion killed many people fromEurope.
E.g.protests demanding autonomy.
E.g.literary work by Brother Grimm, Watch on Rhineland, Dear Fatherland, Betrothrad…in this time

Otherimpacts: fraternity, education, law, better city constructions
Education:fuel liberal discussion, became more critical

How todeal with: ignore and suppress

e..g Vienna:
nationalism:unnatural union of Holland, Belgium, German “loose confederation”, Italy “meregeographical”
liberalism:impose unpopular rulers, e.g. boutbon in Naples and Spain.

All theseresulted in revolts in 1920s, e.g. Spain fought for independence (1820), Greekwar of independence, which were violently suppressed/interfered. In Laiback andVerona congresses, France was sent to suppress Spanish revolt.

Early Italyinsurrections and Belgium revolts suppressed.

Carlsbaddegree: limited press freedom

Germanyand Russia: restricted political discussions

Ony exception:Britain which allowed party politics to develop

Conclude:suppress and ignore nationalism and liberalism

Multi-sided(multilateral) -> bilateral
Preventative-> deterrent
Passive ->active
Close ->open

Treaties,e.g. Dreikaiserbund, triple alliance (from dual alliance), reinsurance treaty…weremulti0sdied, involved more than two countries (although initiated by Bismarck,only worked because other powers joined), causing entangling, a big mass ofnetwork

Bismarck:wanted to prevent a two front war. Isolate France, so treaties revolved aroundAH, Italy, Russia, Germany…

Two countriesbecame closer together, e.g. Britain and France; AH and Germany, forming twoblocs

Alliance:solved disputes peacefully
Preventwar as aim
No armamentrace

More warplans, e.g. Shliffen plan, war councils
More armamentsto deter/ as showdown e,g, Moroccan crisis involve gunboat Panther, dreadnoughtbuilt to deter Germany
More activeacquisition of strategically-located colonies, e.g. morocco (port near Eurioe)and Berlin-Baghad railway (strategically-located)

Treatieswere secret, making suspicion e.g. Russia mobilization on Poland whenReinsurance treaty was ended by Wilhelm

Congresseswere open for all, e.g. Algeciras and 2 Hague conferences, and post-crisesconferences, after Balkan war. Things settled peacefully.

Compare resultbriefly: Fail (entangling alliance, suspicion…)a successful (open conferenceswere successful)

Multi-sided(multilateral) -> bilateral
Preventative-> deterrent
Passive ->active
Close ->open


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